Animals have external and internal sensory receptors that detect different kinds of information, and they use internal mechanisms for processing and storing it. Each receptor can respond to different inputs electromagnetic, mechanical, chemicalsome receptors respond by transmitting impulses that travel along nerve cells. In complex organisms, most such inputs travel to the brain, which is divided into several distinct regions and circuits that serve primary roles, in particular functions such as visual perception, auditory perception, interpretation of perceptual information, guidance of motor movement, and decision making. Brain function also involves multiple interactions between the various regions to form an integrated sense of self and the surrounding world.
History[ edit ] Although biological interactions, more or less individually, were studied earlier, Edward Haskell gave a integrative approach to the thematic, proposing a classification of "co-actions",  later adopted by biologists as "interactions". Close and long-term interactions are described as symbiosis ; [a] symbioses that are mutually beneficial are called mutualistic.
Short-term interactions, including predation and pollinationare extremely important in ecology and evolution. These are short-lived in terms of the duration of a single interaction: As a result, the partners coevolve.
Predation In predation, one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey. Predators are adapted and often highly specialized for hunting, with acute senses such as visionhearingor smell.
Many predatory animals, both vertebrate and invertebratehave sharp claws or jaws to grip, kill, and cut up their prey. Other adaptations include stealth and aggressive mimicry that improve hunting efficiency.
Predation has a powerful selective effect on prey, causing them to develop antipredator adaptations such as warning colorationalarm calls and other signalscamouflage and defensive spines and chemicals. Pollination In pollination, pollinators including insects entomophilysome birds ornithophilyand some batstransfer pollen from a male flower part to a female flower part, enabling fertilisationin return for a reward of pollen or nectar.
Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted with shaped structures, bright colours, patterns, scent, nectar, and sticky pollen to attract insects, guide them to pick up and deposit pollen, and reward them for the service.
Pollinator insects like bees are adapted to detect flowers by colour, pattern, and scent, to collect and transport pollen such as with bristles shaped to form pollen baskets on their hind legsand to collect and process nectar in the case of honey beesmaking and storing honey.
The adaptations on each side of the interaction match the adaptations on the other side, and have been shaped by natural selection on their effectiveness of pollination.
Symbiosis The six possible types of symbiotic relationshipfrom mutual benefit to mutual harm The six possible types of symbiosis are mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, neutralism, amensalism, and competition.
Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea. All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. The interaction among organisms within or between overlapping niches can be characterized into five types of relationships: competition, predation, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism. The last three subtypes are classically defined as relationships exhibiting symbiosis, but predation and competition can also be considered as forms of symbiosis. Some interactions are harmful to one or both of the organisms, whereas other interactions are beneficial. Ecologists have classified the kinds of interactions between organisms into broad categories. Competition. Competition is an interaction between organisms in .
These are distinguished by the degree of benefit or harm they cause to each partner.Populations of different kinds of organisms that interact with one another in a particular place control group The situation used as the basis for comparison in a controlled experiment.
Ways Organisms Interact. what ways do organisms interact?
competition, predation, cooperation, symbiosis. competition. between same and different kinds of organisms, competes for avalible resources (food, light) predation. between different kinds of organisms, hunst and kills eachother in order to supply their energy (shelter).
Ecological relationships describe the interactions between and among organisms within their environment. These interactions may have positive, negative or neutral effects on either species' ability to survive and reproduce, or "fitness.".
Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea. All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli.
Populations of different kinds of organisms that interact with one another in a particular place control group The situation used as the basis for comparison in a controlled experiment. When different kinds of organisms interact with each other for living, the process of symbiosis occurs.
The symbiosis can occur through the fusion of one organism into the other known as endosymbiosis or just through the extracellular communication of the organisms known as ectosymbiosis.