An author of a work generally is the initial owner of the copyright on the work.
Many authors may not be aware of these ethical conundrums, let alone have a plan for addressing them. Ethics is not a stagnant concept. As research methodologies and research questions evolve, new ethical issues in publishing arise.
This section contains a description of several issues broadly relevant to the publishing practice of genetic counselors, particularly as students or recent graduates. However, it is important for genetic counselors-as-authors to keep abreast of ethical issues relevant to their own work.
Ethical issues particularly relevant to writing for publication, include: Authorship Determination Consider the following situation: At the beginning of the project, her supervisor promised her that she would have first authorship on any manuscripts based on the project.
However, when the time came to write the paper, the student procrastinated. The supervisor decided the only way to salvage the paper was to totally rewrite it herself. Now the supervisor thinks that she deserves to be the first author. Are Published thesis author date guidelines that might be implemented in advance to handle this kind of situation?
This complex situation may be all too familiar for many supervisors and students. It raises issues about valuing contributions to the publication process, the power differential between supervisors and students, determining when renegotiation of authorship is warranted, and setting expectations and priorities up front.
Whenever manuscripts are authored by more than one individual, order of authorship should be negotiated as early in the process as possible. Only individuals who have actually contributed to the work should be listed as authors. In the sciences, the first and last authors typically are the individuals that made the greatest contributions to the project Laflin et al.
Student authors pose a special situation. Doctoral students usually are the first authors of papers based on their dissertation research Nguyen and Nguyen Thompson recommends that when there is any question as to who made the primary contribution, the student should receive higher authorship.
His recommendation helps to protect the person who has less power in the situation. In those situations, some authors contend that their involvement should be creative and intellectual in order to warrant authorship; otherwise, student input can be credited in an acknowledgement section Fine and Kurdek ; Holaday and Yost ; Thompson Negotiating authorship is an important step that should begin in the initial stages of a project.
The key is to remember that authorship is negotiated. Questions to consider throughout this negotiation process include: Who had the original idea for the basis of the publication?
Who designed and conducted the study that generated the data? Who will write most of the first draft of the paper?
Students should maintain early and on-going communication with their co-authors about their investment of time and efforts and the outcomes of those efforts Sandler and Russell However, scholarly contribution is more important than actual time and effort expended when determining authorship.
For more information regarding authorship determination, it may be useful to review guidelines for discussing and clarifying authorship order Gibelman and Gelman or developing individualized contracts for research collaboration Stith et al. These guidelines also may be useful for initiating discussion of authorship as part of the curriculum in genetic counseling training programs.
Take another look at the authorship scenario. At the time of the original negotiation of authorship, it is likely that the supervisor and other parties believed the student warranted first authorship due to her creative contributions and time allotted to the study.
Typically students have no experience writing a journal article, and so some procrastination is likely. In this scenario, the authorship dilemma may have been averted by having in place a plan to mentor the student, providing support, and delineating a specific process for writing the first draft of the manuscript.
This activity does not prima facie warrant a change in authorship order.
The supervisor and student should discuss the reasons for changing authorship order; the supervisor should not unilaterally make this change without discussion. It is also important to inform students early in the process that most research is a collaborative effort, requiring time, energy, and sometimes funding, and therefore their collaborators have expectations that their contributions will be rewarded through publication.
Developing an a priori policy for renegotiation may often reduce misunderstandings and minimize conflict. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest Consider the following situation: A student conducted a study to evaluate a new program that her clinic is offering to its patients.
She interviewed ten patients who participated in the program about their experience.Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline- style” capitalization, and the year.
The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, If an author has published multiple works in the same year, alphabetize the titles in the reference list and then add a, b,c, etc.
to the year (Lee a). How to Cite A Dissertation. 1) Are dissertations published or unpublished – and how can I tell the difference? 2) How should I cite a dissertation or thesis published by ProQuest /UMI?.
3) CIIS citation formats – APA, MLA, Chicago, AAA. Ninety-five Theses at Wikisource The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences [a] is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe.
Jan 14, · This paper expands on previous articles by describing the publication process and discussing publication ethics, with emphasis on aspects pertinent to publishing a master’s thesis. It is hoped that this article will encourage genetic counselors to publish their research.
The Author-date (Harvard) system is comprised of 2 elements: in-text citation and a bibliography at the end of the document. In the text of an assignment ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in brackets, for example (Joyner, ).